Herbert Gintis reviews a sociologist Jens Beckert's book "Beyond the Market":

"Sociologists have got to get real. Rejecting game theory and the rational actor model is precisely why sociological theory does not exist. The only real reason sociologists do not accept these tools is that they are hard to learn and they involve a lot of math. The economist's rational actor model is surely too simple in many ways to deal with complex interpersonal interactions. Most important, people are not always selfish, beliefs are not purely subjective, but rather are shared among individuals, and even preferences are not individually given, but rather are a function of social situation (framing). All of these three facts are critical to understanding human strategic interaction in cooperation and conflict. These facts complicate the model of individual human behavior, and will require even deeper and more powerful mathematical tools, not their abandonment.

Similarly, there are deep problems with traditional game theory, and sociological theory, especially the theory of norms is likely to be a critical theoretical tool in repairing the weakness of game theory, but the knee-jerk instinct of sociologists to reject game theory is a major reason for the impotence of sociological theory today. Game theory is not everything, but it surely part of a total theory."